Human trafficking is a persisting international evil that transcends national boundaries in a manner that renders this form of organized crime a global concern.- Judge Mohammed Chawki & Dr. Mohd. Wahb In uncivilized and underdeveloped societies, we can imagine existence of human trafficking but when we hear about in modern developed countries, it appears as either unrealistic or beyond control. Worldwide supply is driven primarily by economic desperation and lack of a sustainable income, oppressive political conditions at home, displacement through war or other crisis, lack of family support, or direct familial coercion. The flow is from poorer countries to countries where the standard of living for an average person is relatively higher.
UN Trafficking Protocol defines trafficking as the ‘recruitment, movement or transportation of a person through force, deception, fraud, or violence into any form of exploitative work.’ Human trafficking involves deceiving or coercing human being for his exploitation. It includes trafficking of females for sexual purposes, organ removal etc. Under the Trafficking in Victims Protection Act of America, 150 countries are classified into three Tiers depending upon measures taken to prevent human trafficking. Tier 1 countries are the one who have met the minimum standards for fighting trafficking like Germany. As per Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking, 2000 – Tier 1 is the smallest category with only 11 countries that comply with the minimum standards. Tier 2 are those who are trying to meet the standards and under Tier 3 countries trigger the withdrawal of non – humanitarian aid from US.
Article 23 of the Constitution of India prohibits trafficking in any form. The specific legislations to prevent trafficking in human beings are The Immoral Traffic Prevention Act (ITPA), 1956 and The Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976. The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Amendment Bill 2006 was introduced in May 2002. It makes provisions for constituting Central and State authorities for effectively preventing and combating offence of trafficking in persons. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime states India is an origin, transit and destination country for trafficking in persons. Even with increase in education and literacy amongst people, women’s trafficking is the fastest growing business in the world.
Today, unfortunately trafficking offenders are empowered with the combination of a physical collection, sexual satisfaction, computer skills and a supportive online community. Ronald Weitzer, a criminologist at George Washington University and an expert on sex trafficking, said that trafficking is a hidden crime whose victims often fear coming forward.
Raising global awareness and increasing literacy rates, promoting economic development, improving social conditions coordinating legislative efforts on national, regional and global levels may help to make touch by atleast half of the countries Tier 1.Human trafficking is ranked second to arms and drugs trafficking, but if no steps are taken to control it, a time would come when it may be at the top of the list of crimes.